Diabetes Mellitus Among Filipinos Philippines Health And Social Care Essay

Most of us just heard about diabetes but how much do we know about it. The thing that we only know that many people does have diabetes mellitus, and most of them are Filipinos. There Mellitus are more than 300,000 Filipinos who suffer from Diabetes Mellitus. In the United States, there are about 16 million diabetics and about 1800 new cases are diagnosed each year. Type I Diabetes, used to be called Juvenile Diabetes, is insulin-dependent (the person’s pancreas does not produce insulin), meaning insulin injection is needed to treat the condition. It is medically known as IDDM (Insulin). Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, most commonly among persons younger than 30 years old associated obesity is not common. It accounts for 5 to 10% of all diabetics. Type II Diabetes is NIDDM (Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Melllitus), which can be treated by pills (sulfonyl ureas, antihyperglycemic drugs) rather than insulin, most commonly found Diabetes those who are older than 30, and associated obesity is frequent. It accounts for majority (90 to 95%) of diabetics. The third type is Gestational Diabetes.

Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the pancreas no longer produces enough insulin or cells stop responding to the insulin that is produced, so that glucose in the blood cannot be absorbed into the cells of the body. Symptoms include frequent urination, lethargy, excessive thirst, and hunger. The treatment includes changes in diet, oral medications, and in some cases, daily injections of insulin.

The most common form of diabetes is Type II, It is sometimes called age-onset or adult-onset diabetes, and this form of diabetes occurs most often in people who are overweight and who do not exercise. Type II is considered a milder form of diabetes because of its slow onset (sometimes developing over the course of several years) and because it usually can be controlled with diet and oral medication. The consequences of uncontrolled and untreated Type II diabetes, however, are the just as serious as those for Type I. This form is also called noninsulin-dependent diabetes, a term that is somewhat misleading. Many people with Type II diabetes can control the condition with diet and oral medications, however, insulin injections are sometimes necessary if treatment with diet and oral medication is not working.

The causes of diabetes mellitus are unclear, however, there seem

to be both hereditary (genetic factors passed on in families) and

environmental factors involved. Research has shown that some people

who develop diabetes have common genetic markers. In Type I

diabetes, the immune system, the body’s defense system against

infection, is believed to be triggered by a virus or another

microorganism that destroys cells in the pancreas that produce insulin.

In Type II diabetes, age, obesity, and family history of diabetes play a


In Type II diabetes, the pancreas may produce enough insulin,

however, cells have become resistant to the insulin produced and it

may not work as effectively. Symptoms of Type II diabetes can begin

so gradually that a person may not know that he or she has it. Early

signs are lethargy, extreme thirst, and frequent urination. Other

symptoms may include sudden weight loss, slow wound healing,

urinary tract infections, gum disease, or blurred vision. It is not

unusual for Type II diabetes to be detected while a patient is seeing a

doctor about another health concern that is actually being caused by

the yet undiagnosed diabetes. “Education is the Cornerstone of

Diabetic Therapy” said by World Health Organization.

We will try to see and enumerate in this study the dominance of Diabetes Mellitus Among Filipinos in the Philippines.

B. Statement of the Problem

The research aims to know the dominance of diabetes Mellitus and the different factors that affect a person specifically, the study sought to answer the following questions:

Specifically the study sought to answer the following:

How prevalent is the diabetes mellitus?

Which type of diabetes is most common among Filipinos?

Is diabetes hereditary?

What are the signs and symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus that occurs to all diabetic Filipinos?

What are the things that can be done to treat Diabetes?

C. Hypothesis

There is very huge number of diabetic people and they are continuing to grow even more larger as expected, due to the different factors related to the illness.

D. Significance of the Study

The study is important for several reasons.

Goverment officials of the Philippine Republic. The government officials will eventually know that one of the disease that kills a person is diabetes, and for them to give importance in giving a prioritize fund about it.

Nursing Students. The students will realize the importance of taking good care of their self, especially their eating habits which is the most common reason of having Diabetes.

Parents. The study will serve as guide to parents on how to manage the proper diet for their family knowing the study of diabetes Mellitus.

Future Researchers. The research paper will help them to more about it in a concrete way. So that, they will be able to conduct a more efficient research on this.

E. Scope and Delimitation

The study aims to determine the dominance of diabetes among Filipinos here in the Philippines. Furthermore, this research explored the statistics of Filipinos who have Diabetes Mellitus.

Diabetic Filipinos in Philippines are the only concerned population and it is limited to the study of Diabetes Mellitus.

F. Materials and Methods

G. Definition of Terms

In order to have a clear view of the problem in this study, some terms considered relevant to the study have been made defined.

Diabetes Mellitus. Often referred to simply as diabetes (Ancient Greek: διαβαίνειν “to pass through”), is a syndrome of disordered metabolism, usually due to a combination of hereditary and environmental causes, resulting in abnormally high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia).

Diabetes type 1. Is usually diagnosed in children and young

adults, and was previously known as juvenile diabetes. In type 1

diabetes, the body does not produce insulin. Insulin is a hormone

that is needed to convert sugar (glucose), starches and other food

into energy needed for daily life.

Insulin. A polypeptide hormone secreted by the islets of

Langerhans and functioning in the regulation of the metabolism of

carbohydrates and fats, especially the conversion of glucose to

glycogen, which lowers the blood glucose level. Any of various

pharmaceutical preparations containing this hormone that are

derived from the pancreas of certain animals or produced through

genetic engineering and are used in the medical treatment and

management of diabetes mellitus

Sulfonylurea. Any of a group of hypoglycemic drugs, such as

tolbutamide, that act on the beta cells of the pancreas to increase

the secretion of insulin.

Anti-hyperglycemic Drug. A drug that helps to move out of

the system the presence of an abnormally high concentration of

glucose in the blood.

Gestational Diabetes. is a condition in which women without

previously diagnosed diabetes exhibit high blood glucose levels

during pregnancy.

Microorganism. An organism of microscopic or submicroscopic

size, especially a bacterium or protozoan.

Pancreas. Secretes hormones that affect the level of sugar in

the blood. These cells secrete: Glucagon-raises the level of

glucose (sugar) in the blood Insulin-stimulates cells to use

glucose Somatostatin-may regulate the secretion of glucagons

and insulin.

Hereditary. Transmitted or capable of being transmitted

genetically from parent to offspring: a hereditary disease. E.g.

Diabetes Mellitus.

Lethargy. abnormal drowsiness : the quality or state of being

lazy, sluggish, or indifferent.

Chapter 2

Related Literature

Many people are diagnose to have diabetes mellitus and there are also many people who didn’t know that they have diabetes. The extent of its disease In Filipinos is really big.

Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus among Filipinos

Different statistic has been laid out by different people at

different time. Administration [1] Four point one (4.1%) of Filipinos

have diabetes mellitus. At the current estimate of the population,

this means 2.5 million Filipinos with diabetes, with perhaps an equal

number which remain undiagnosed. Administration [2] The health

care Indicator statistics of the Department of Health has found that

diabetes is the ninth leading cause of death in the Philippines,

affecting 1 out of 25 Filipinos. As estimated 3.36 Million Filipinos are

affected by the disease today. Leading cause of mortality by sex,

number, rate/100,000 population and percentage Philippines,

2003.Diabtes Mellitus, Male-6,823, Females-7,373, number,

rate-17.5% and a percentage of 3.6.This number is expected to rise

to about 8 million after 20 years.

Types of Diabetes most common among Filipinos

Gonzales [3] There are two main types of

diabetes mellitus: type 1 and type 2. There are

several other specific types, but they occur rarely. There is also a

type of diabetes, gestational diabetes mellitus that occurs during

pregnancy. In this type of diabetes, the abnormality in sugar

metabolism usually disappears after delivery although women who

develop this condition are at a higher risk (30-60 percent) of

developing diabetes later in life. Type 1 diabetes, which accounts

for about five to 10 percent of all cases of diabetes, is an

autoimmune disease. An autoimmune disease results when the

body s defense system (immune system) against infection and

other foreign substances turns awry and attacks the bodys own

cells.Type 2 diabetes the type that afflicts your partner is the

most common form of diabetes. It accounts for about 90-95

percent of all cases of diabetes mellitus. Initially, people diagnosed

with this type of diabetes produce enough insulin, but for unknown

reasons, the cells do not respond appropriately to it. Subsequently,

over a period of years, insulin production by the pancreas


Diabetes a Hereditary

Gonzales [ 3] The risk of a person with a parent with type 2

diabetes of developing diabetes is about 15 percent if the parent

was diagnosed before age 50 (as in the case of your husband) and

seven to eight percent if the parent was diagnosed after age 50. If

both parents have type 2 diabetes, the probability is about 40


Signs And Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus

Manzella [4] Signs and symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus:

Frequent trips to the bathroom, Unquenchable Thirst, Losing Weight

Without Trying, Weakness and Fatigue, Tingling or Numbness in Your

Hands, Legs or Feet, and Blurred vision, skin that is dry or itchy,

frequent infections or cuts and bruises that take a long time to heal

are also signs that something is amiss.

Things done that leads to a better health even you have Diabetes.

Administration [5] There is currently no cure for diabetes

Mellitus. Diet, exercise, and careful monitoring of blood glucose

levels are the keys to manage diabetes so that patients can live a

relatively normal life. Diabetes can be life-threatening if not properly

managed, so patients should not attempt to treat this condition

without medical supervision. Treatment of diabetes focuses on two

goals: keeping blood glucose within normal range and preventing the

development of long-term complications. Alternative treatments

cannot replace the need for insulin but they may enhance insulin’s

effectiveness and may lower blood glucose levels. In addition,

alternative medicines may help to treat complications of the disease

and improve quality of life.


A. Book

Boulton, A. J. and Rayman, G. (2006). The Fact in Diabetes. West Sussex, England: John Wiley and Sons Limited. RD 563 B6 2006.

Unger, U. M. D. (2001). Diabetes Management in Primary Care. Philadelphia, USA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins a Wolters Kluwer Business. RC 660 U5 2007.

Schwarts, S. L. (1989). Management of Diabetes Mellitus. Texas, USA: Essential Medical Information System, Inc. MS616 462 sch1m 1989.

Drum, D. and Zierenberg, T. (2006). The Type II Diabetes Sourcebook. New York, USA: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 616 462 D8447 2006.

Frost, G. and Moses, R. (2003). Nutritional Management of Diabetes Mellitus. West Sussex, England: John Wiley and Sons Limited. 616.4620654 F92n 2003.

Parriesh, D. and Machado, A. C. (2006). Healing Gourmet eat to beat Diabetes. New York, USA: Medical Meals, Inc. 616.4620654 d197H 2006.

B. Article

Pultante, Jr. “Diabetic Foot Care”, Manila Bulletin, (August 17, 2002). p.11-13.

Gonzales, Dr. Eduardo G. “Diabetes Mellitus”, Manila Bulletin, (August 23, 2005). p. C-4

Ramirez, Carlo Gerando. “Therapy Option for Type I Diabetes”, Manila Bulletin, (February 25, 2002). p. 1

Mercado, Charmaine. “How to Help a loved one with a medical condition”, Health Today, (December 2003). p. 50-51.

Tacio, Elena D. “Diabetes: Hidden Epidemic”, Philippine Panorama, (August 3, 2003). p.19

Sy, Gary S. “What is Diabetes Mellitus?”, Manila Bulletin, (August 21, 2002). p.11-12.

Mamanglu, Shianee. “Juvenile Diabetes cases rising in RP”, Manila Bulletin, (March 28, 2000). p.23.

Gonzales, Eduardo G. “A Primer on Diabetes Mellitus”, Manila Bulletin, (July 16, 2007). p. C-5.

Fox, Maggie. “New drug study raises worries”, Manila Bulletin, (May 23, 2007). p.11, B-12.

Sy, Gary s. “Understanding Diabetes and its Complications”, Manila Bulletin, (January 25, 2008). p.11, B-18.

Lopez, Estrellita. “Diabetes and Diet”, Life Today, (June 2001). p.15.

Tacio, Henrylite D. “Taking Diabetes More Seriously”, Manila Bulletin, (October 21, 2003). p.32-33.

Lansang, Segundo L. “Diabetes, A Brief History”, Life Today, (June 2001).

Calcimon, Nerissa V. “Nature of Diabetes”, Life Today, (June 2001).

Lopez, Estrellita. “Treatment of Diabetes”, Life Today, (June 2001).

Salazar, Tessa R. “2-M-1 Pill for Diabetes”, Philippine Daily Inquirer, (April 22, 2006). p. B-6.

Puyalte, Jose.”Now that you’re Diabetic”, Women’s Journal, (April 9, 2001). p.11.

Moseh, Terry L. “WHO: Diabetes, a health threat”, Manila Bulletin, (November 27, 2005). p.H-2.

Gomez, Ma. Congee S. “Beware: Diabetes the New Health Scare”, Women’s Journal, (August 24, 1996). p.40-41.

C. Electronic Media

Manriquez, D.J.: Diabetes Melltus.2008.

Diabetes Profile. February 22, 2009

Manzella, D. : Top Warning Signs of Diabetes December 15, 2008.

Diabetes Mellitus.

P., Erlich H.A ET. Al. The association of class 1 and II alleles with type I diabetes among Filipinos June 2002.

Diabetes rising among Filipinos. February 22, 2009. http://article.wn.com/view/2008/11/11/Diabetes_rising_among_Filipinos Philippine Inquirer ¶

Diabetes Mellitus Case Study. May 15, 2008. http://nursinocrib.com/diabetes_mellitus_case_study

Treatments for Diabetes Alternative. Medicine February 22, 2009http://www.shirleys_wellness_cafe.com/diabetes.htm.

Diabetes Mellitus. Februaty 22, 2009.

www.diabetes center.org.ph/?fid=education Februaty 22, 2009

Diabetes Mellitus Among Filipinos Philippines Health And Social Care Essay

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