## Population Genetics Assignment

Population Genetics Assignment. Population Genetics Assignment.

INSTRUCTIONS

Objectives:

• Describe the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with respect to genotype and allele frequencies: ( p + q )2 = p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
• Explain the conditions necessary to maintain the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
• Describe how the bottleneck effect and gene flow can alter the gene pool of a population

Background:

Population Genetics

Genetics can be applied on a small scale, as in the case of Gregor Mendel’s investigations of garden pea plants, but it can also be applied to whole populations. A population is a group of organisms in a specific area that have the opportunity to interbreed. These organisms share a common gene pool, all the alleles present in all individuals in a set population. The basic unit of evolution is the population, and small scale changes to the allele frequencies to a population’s gene pool is called microevolution. In short, populations can evolve, but individuals do not.

Two scientists, G. H. Hardy and W. Weinberg developed models of population genetics that showed gene pools did not evolve, or change allele frequencies, solely based on probability inherent during the process of heredity. The Hardy-Weinberg Principle states that allelic frequencies of an ideal population will not change from generation to generation. This principle holds true only under certain criteria:

1. The population is large in number
2. There is random mating between individuals in the population
3. There are no mutations that change one allele into a different allele
4. There is no migration of individuals into or out of the population
5. Individuals with each genotype are equally likely to survive and mate (no natural selection)

The Hardy-Weinberg Principle provides a testable framework to study the effects migration (gene flow), mutations, non-random mating, natural selection, population size etc. have on the evolution of populations. A major function of population genetics is to determine the allele and genotype frequencies in populations over generations. The Hardy-Weinberg Principle provides a mathematical formula to calculate expected allele and genotype frequencies in a population that is not undergoing microevolution.

The Hardy-Weinberg Equation is: (p + q)2 = p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1

The Hardy-Weinberg equation is based on focusing on one trait in a population at a time, with two alleles contributing to the genotype for that trait. The proportion (frequency) of dominant alleles in the gene pool of the population is given the variable name p and the frequency of recessive alleles in the gene pool of the population is given the variable name q. Since p and q together represent all the alleles in the gene pool of the population, adding p and q will total 100%, or p + q = 1.

Assuming that the organisms in the population sexually reproduce and randomly mate with each other, alleles in the gene pool of the population will be randomly combined to result in the genotypes of the next generation of the population. In this case, if the dominant allele in the population is R and the recessive allele is r, the probability of having the genotype RR is equal to p2.

For example if the frequency of R in the gene pool is p = 0.5 and the frequency of r in the gene pool is q = 0.5, then the probability of RR (homozygous dominant) in the next generation is p * p = p2 = 0.25. Similarly, the probability of rr (homozygous recessive) is q * q = q2 = 0.25.  The probability of being Rr (heterozygous) is ( p * q ) + ( q * p ) = 2pq = 0.5. The 2 in the 2pq term accounts for there being two ways an individual could be heterozygous, since either parent can provide the dominant or recessive allele.

Example 1:

• If the R (p) and r (q) alleles occur at equal frequencies in the initial population, then frequencies of alleles is p = q = 0.5
• This means that half of all gametes in the gene pool will have the R allele and the other half of the gametes will have the r allele
• Again, assuming the population satisfies the Hardy-Weinberg Principles, the genotypic makeup of the next generation of the population can be determined using the Hardy-Weinberg equation:
• If a population satisfies the Hardy-Weinberg Principle conditions, then the allele frequencies will not change from generation to generation. They will remain p = q = 0.5

Example 2:

• In nature the frequencies of dominant and recessive alleles are almost never equal. For example, in Mendel’s garden 4% of the pea plant flowers were white (a recessive trait). The genotype of those flowers would be homozygous recessive (rr). The frequency of that genotype in this population (if it satisfies the Hardy-Weinberg Principles) is q2. This means that the frequency of the recessive white allele (q) can be calculated by taking the square root of q2.

Therefore, if q2 = 0.04, then q = √(0.04) = 0.2 (the frequency of the recessive allele).

• Since p + q = 1, if the frequency of one of the alleles in a population is known, the frequency of the other allele can be calculated.

Therefore, if q = 0.2, then p + (0.2) = 1, so p = 0.8.

This means that 20% (0.2/1) of the alleles in the population are recessive and

80% (0.8/1) of the alleles are dominant.

• Again, assuming the population satisfies the Hardy-Weinberg Principles, the genotypic makeup of the next generation of the population can be determined using the Hardy-Weinberg equation:
• Keep in mind that this method is only valid if all of the Hardy-Weinberg Principles are satisfied in a population.

If a population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium then the allelic frequencies will not change from generation to generation, and the equation p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 can be used to determine the expected genotype frequencies for future generations of the population. However, in nature the conditions for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium are rarely met. In this assigment you will use the Hardy-Weinberg Principle as a model to predict the changes in a population’s gene pool based on events, such as genetic drift and gene flow.

Materials:

Procedure:

Population Genetics Activity 1: Testing Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

This activity simulates how allele frequencies in a population will remain similar from generation to generation if the population satisfies the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium conditions.

1. Each group would obtain a plastic or paper bag that will hold the two colors of beans: black and brown (or red and white).
• Each group would place 32 black (or red) beans and 48 brown (or white) beans into their group’s bag. The black (or red) beans represent the dominant allele R and the brown (or white) beans represent the recessive allele r.

Since the population has 32 + 48 = 80 alleles, this means the population will contain 40 individuals, with each individual represented by two beans. These two beans will represent the genotype of the individual.

• Based on the Background information and Procedures described above, answer questions 1 – 2 on the worksheet.
• Table 1 on the worksheet is partially completed for you. Fill in the rest of Table 1 by calculating the expected population genotype frequencies and number of individuals of each genotype by using the Hardy-Weinberg equation: p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1. This is the hypothesis (and prediction) that is made based on the assumption that the population satisfies the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium conditions.
• Using the Hardy-Weinberg equation: p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1, calculate the expected frequencies for the genotypes RR, Rr, and rr by using the allele frequencies for the parent population, where p is the frequency of allele R = p and q is the frequency of allele r.
• Using the genotype frequencies, calculate the number of individuals with each genotype by multiplying the genotype frequency by the total population size.

For example: the allele frequency of the R allele is 0.4, so therefore p = 0.4.  Since p = 0.4, then p2 = (0.4)2 = 0.16.  This is the expected population genotype frequency of the RR genotype.  Since there are 40 individuals in the population, the expected population number of RR individuals is 0.16 * 40 = 6.4.

• After completing Table 1, answer question 3 on the worksheet. This is where you will state your hypothesis and prediction.
• Watch the following video that provides background on the Hardy-Weinberg Equation and the assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg principle, as well as showing how beads representing alleles in a gene pool can be randomly chosen to simulate what the allele and genotype frequencies would be in the next generation of a population from time 1:30 to time 6:40.

Note that in the video above, red and yellow beads are used to represent the dominant allele “A” and the recessive allele “a” respectively, we instead use black (or red) and brown (or white) beans to represent the alleles “R” and “r”, respectively.  However, the process of randomly selecting the pairs of beads and keeping track of the genotypes of each pair selected is the same as what would occur in our experiment.

• Without looking into the bag one student would remove two beans from the bag. These beans represent the genotype of an individual in the second generation. On a scrap sheet of paper keep a tally/count of the new generation’s genotypes (RR, Rr, and rr). This data would then be used to complete Table 2.
• Once the genotype for an individual in the population is observed and counted, the beans would be placed back into the bag and step 7 would be repeated until a total of 40 individuals had been counted. This technique is called sampling with replacement.
• Table 2 in the worksheet is partially completed for you. Fill in the rest of Table 2 by calculating the observed population genotype frequencies and allele frequencies by using the observed number of individuals with each genotype that are already filled in for Table 2.

For example: to calculate an observed population genotype frequency, if the number of RR individuals is 7 and the total population size is 40, then the genotype frequency would be 7/40 = 0.175 (which can be rounded to 0.18 in our experiment).

For example: to calculate an observed population allele frequency, if the number of Rr individuals is 18, then 18 “R” alleles will be contributed to the gene pool by these individuals, and if the number of RR individuals is 7, and each RR individual contributes 2 “R” alleles to the gene pool, that means that there are 7 * 2 = 14 “R” alleles contributed by the RR individuals. Therefore, the total number of “R” alleles in the gene pool will be 18 + 14 = 34.  Since there are 80 alleles in the gene pool in total, the allele frequency for “R” would be 34/80 = 0.425 (rounded to 0.43 in our experiment)

1. After completing Table 2, answer questions 4 – 6 on the worksheet.

Population Genetics Activity 2: Observing the effects of Genetic Drift (due to the Bottleneck Effect)

This activity simulates how drastic decreases in the number of individuals in a population can result in changes in allele frequencies. These types of population decreases are known as bottlenecks and the changes in allele frequencies occur due to random chance as a result of Genetic Drift (a form of which is the Bottleneck Effect).

1. Each group would obtain a plastic or paper bag that will hold the two colors of beans: black and brown (or red and white).
• Each group would place 40 black (or red) beans and 40 brown (or white) beans into their group’s bag. The black (or red) beans represent the dominant allele R and the brown (or white) beans represent the recessive allele r.

Since the population has 40 + 40 = 80 alleles, this means the population will contain 40 individuals, with each individual represented by two beans. These two beans will represent the genotype of the individual.

• Without looking into the bag one student would then remove two beans from the bag. These beans represent the genotype of an individual that survived the catastrophe that substantially decreased the population size. On a scrap sheet of paper you would record the genotype (RR, Rr, and rr) of this individual. This data will be used for Generation 1 in Table 3. Do not place these beans back into the bag.
• Step 3 would be repeated until 5 total individuals (5 pairs of beans) had been counted. Since you did not put the beans back into the bag, this technique is called sampling without replacement.
• This data would be used to complete the row for Generation 1 in Table 3 by determining the genotype frequencies (RR, Rr, and rr) and the new allele frequencies for R (p) and r (q) – your observed frequencies. This is the gene pool of the surviving population.
1. Count the number of RR individuals and divide by 5 to get the genotype frequency for RR.  Repeat this process for the Rr individuals and the rr individuals to obtain the frequencies for the Rr and rr genotypes, respectively.
• Count the number of R alleles and divide by 10 to get the allele frequency for R, (p) then count the number of r alleles and divide by 10 to get the allele frequency for r (q).
• The surviving individuals would now reproduce by randomly mating with each other, resulting in the next generation of organisms in the population.
1. To simulate this, you would set all the beans aside and determine how many black (or red) and brown (or white) beans to put into the next generation’s gene pool by using the allele frequencies for R (p) and r (q) determined in step 3.

Example: If p = 0.40 and q = 0.60 then your new population will have 4 black (or red) beans and 6 brown (or white) beans.

Note that the allele frequencies for each generation may be different from the allele frequencies of the previous generation.

• Again, without looking into the bag, one student will remove two beans from the bag. These beans represent the genotype of an individual that survived the catastrophe that substantially decreased the population size. On a scrap sheet of paper you would record the genotype (RR, Rr, and rr) of this individual. This data will be used to complete Table 3. Place these beans back into the bag
• Once the genotype of the individual had been observed and counted, the beans would be placed back into the bag, you would shake the bag, and you would repeat step 7 until you have counted 5 individuals. This technique is called sampling with replacement.
• This data would be used to complete the rows for Generations 2-10 in Table 3 by determining the genotype frequencies (RR, Rr, and rr) and the new allele frequencies for R (p) and r (q) – your observed frequencies for each Generation. This is the gene pool of the surviving population.
1. Count the number of RR individuals and divide by 5 to get the genotype frequency for RR.  Repeat this process for the Rr individuals and the rr individuals to obtain the frequencies for the Rr and rr genotypes, respectively.
• Count the number of R alleles and divide by 10 to get the allele frequency for R (p), then count the number of r alleles and divide by 10 to get the allele frequency for r (q).
1. The surviving individuals now reproduce by randomly mating with each other, resulting in the next generation of organisms in the population.
1. Set all the beans aside and determine how many black (or red) and brown (or white) beans to put into the next generation’s gene pool by using the allele frequencies for R (p) and r (q) determined in step 7.

Note that the allele frequencies for each generation may be different from the allele frequencies of the previous generation.

1. You would repeat steps 7 – 10 for up to 10 generations. If at some point either the frequency of the R (p) allele or the frequency of the r (q) allele reaches 100% (or 1.0), you can stop.  An allele reaching a frequency of 100% (or 1.0) in a population is called fixation and the population has become completely genetically uniform for that particular gene and trait as a result.
1. Table 3 on the worksheet has been completed for you.
1. Watch the following video that provides background on genetic drift and shows the results of the bottleneck effect on a population from time 0:00 to time 4:20.
1. Answer question 7 on the worksheet by completing Table 4.
1. After completing Table 4, answer question 8 on the worksheet
1. Using the data in Table 3, answer questions 9 – 11 on the worksheet.
1. Based on the Background information and the videos you watched, answer questions 12 – 13 on the Population Genetics Worksheet.

BIO 101 Assignment 11: Population Genetics Worksheet

Name: _________________________                           Section: _______________________

Data Analysis and Synthesis Questions

Population Genetics: Activity 1

1. Each bean represents a single allele. If the organisms in the population are diploid (they have two alleles for each gene), how many individuals are in the population?
• Since each bean represents a single allele:
1. What allele does the black (or red) bean represent?
• What allele does the brown (or white) bean represent?
• What color combination of two beans represents a:
1. homozygous dominant individual?
1. Homozygous recessive individual?
1. Heterozygous individual?

Table 1: Expected Genotype and Allele Frequencies for the Second Generation

• Based on the Hardy-Weinberg principle state your prediction for genotype frequencies of the future generations

Table 2: Observed Genotype and Allele Frequencies for the Second Generation

• Were the expected and observed results similar? Do your results match the prediction for a population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? If not suggest an explanation.
• What do you expect to happen to the genotype and allele frequencies of the population after running this simulation for 20 generations?
• Explain how this simulation meets the conditions for a population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

Table 3: Observed Genotype and Allele Frequencies: Bottleneck Effect

• The allele frequencies p and q for Generation 1 from Table 3 have been copied into Table 4 below. Use these allele frequencies to calculate the expected genotype frequencies (p2, 2pq, q2) for Generation 1 and enter the results into Table 4.

Table 4: Calculated Expected Genotype frequencies

• Compare the Expected Genotype Frequencies from Table 4 to the Observed Genotype Frequencies from Table 3 for Generation 1.
• Suggest a reason for why the frequencies do (or do not) match.
• Construct a Line Graph showing the allele frequencies p and q in the population over all 10 Generations.  You should have two lines, one for each allele. Don’t forget to give your graph a title and axes labels.
1. Did the allele frequencies p and q remain the same from generation to generation in the population?
1. Did the population undergo microevolution? Explain your reasoning.
1. Based on your observations, what is the result of drastic declines in population size (bottlenecks) on genetic diversity in a population?
1. Given your understanding of evolution by means of natural selection, is a change in the amount of genetic diversity in a population likely to impact the survival of this population over many generations? Explain your reasoning.

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Population Genetics Assignment

Population Genetics Assignment

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## Anatomy II Course Reflection Assignment

Anatomy II Course Reflection Assignment. Anatomy II Course Reflection Assignment.

INSTRUCTIONS

Abdomen & Pelvis

Unit Reflection Instructions:

A reflection constitutes a look back at the material content covered in each unit. Reflections should address each of the learning outcomes listed for the unit (see page 2). In this way reflections are a direct measure of desired learning outcomes.

Your paper needs to be 3-5 pages typed (750-1350 words), Times New Roman font 12. See rubric pg. 3.

I have presented course content in a unique organized way I developed in order to maximize learning effectiveness. Functional understanding through mastery of fundaments was emphasized rather than the amount of content.

Each anatomical region of this unit was presented in sections: structure, muscles (skeletal), nerves, arteries & veins.

Visceral organs within each of these regions were then presented using the same format- structure, muscles (visceral), nerves, arteries & veins.

For each section of this Unit the following was provided: Word document outline of skeletal muscles, and simplified easily reproducible schematic drawings of nerves, arteries & veins.

Presentation in the Unit in the format outline above allows students to establish relationships between viscera and regions of containment.

Students are encouraged to structure their Unit Reflection in the way it was presented. Summarize content listed in learning outcomes. Highlight connections you have been able to make using this course formatting. Elaborate on what you feel has facilitated your understanding of course content.

Unit Learning Outcomes: Abdomen & Pelvis

Abdomen

1. List & describe the structural components of the abdomen- walls, and cavity (parietal & visceral peritoneum).
• Describe quadrants & 9 regions of abdomen & viscera associated with each.
• List muscles of 3 abdominal wall regions.
• Describe the origin, insertion, action & innervation of each muscle.
• List layers of abdominal wall.
• List & describe landmarks of abdominal surface anatomy.
• Define rectus sheath & arcuate line.
• Name the boundaries of inguinal triangle.
• Describe inguinal canal & list the contents for males & females.
• Reproduce lumbar plexus drawing & abdominal muscle innervation.
• Describe major arteries & branches of anterior & posterior abdominal walls.
• Describe major veins of anterior & posterior abdominal walls.
• List abdominal viscera.
• Describe location & structural features.
• Summarize ANS innervation (sympathetic & parasympathetic)
• Discuss arterial supply & venous drainage.
• Describe the hepatic portal system.

Pelvis

1. List & describe the structural components of the pelvis- walls, and cavity (parietal & visceral peritoneum).
2. Define pelvic inlet, false (greater) pelvis, pelvic brim, true (lesser) pelvis, & pelvic outlet.
3. Describe peritoneum of pelvic cavity.
4. Summarized major structural differences of pelvis between male & female.
5. List the muscles of the pelvic wall & floor.
6. Define perineum
7. Describe deep & superficial perineal pouches, their fascia’s, and contents of each.
8. Define urogenital triangle & list its components.
9. List the perineal muscles.
10. Reproduce lumbar & sacral plexus drawings and relate to pelvic & perineal muscle innervation.
11. Describe major arteries of pelvis.
12. List major branches of anterior & posterior divisions of internal iliac artery.
13. Discuss male & female differences.
14. List pelvic viscera
15. Describe location & structural features.
16. Summarize ANS (sympathetic & parasympathetic) innervation.
17. Discuss arterial supply & venous drainage.

Anatomy 2- Unit Reflection Rubric; Abdomen & Pelvis

Anatomy 2 Unit Reflection is worth 100 points.

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Anatomy II Course Reflection Assignment

Anatomy II Course Reflection Assignment

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## Write a research and null hypotheses regarding the relationship between exercise and depression

Write a research and null hypotheses regarding the relationship between exercise and depression. Write a research and null hypotheses regarding the relationship between exercise and depression. NURS 6208 FINAL PROJECT AND GUIDELINE

NURS 6208 FINAL PROJECT AND GUIDELINES

The project must be typewritten, double spaced and very limited in length (maximum 12 pages). Uses APA rules appropriately, including text and tables.

Part I

A NP researcher randomly sampled 100 women aged 50-65 years and measured their minutes of exercise in the past week, BMI, and depression. Depression was measured using a Likert type scale consisting of 20 items. The summation score ranged from 20 to 100 and the higher the score, the higher the level of depression.  The correlation coefficients (Pearson’s rs) are summarized in the following table. For the analyses, statistical significant level was set at α=0.05.

Table 1: correlation among minutes of exercise, BMI and depression

Exercise in past week (minutes)    BMI

BMI    -0.20

Depression score    -0.30 (P<0.05)    0.21 1.    Write a research and null hypotheses regarding the relationship between exercise and depression. 2.    Based on the test statistics in table 1, what is you conclusion regarding your research hypothesis? (Hint: discuss both the magnitude and direction of the relationship). 3.    What proportion of variance is shared by minutes of exercise and depression among women 50-65 years of age? 4.    For the relationship between minutes of exercise and BMI, what was the estimated power of the statistical test? (Using the power table on page 202, table 9.1, Polit 2010). What was the risk that a type II error was committed? 5.    If -0.20 is a good estimation of population correction, what sample size would be needed to achieve power of 0.80 at α=0.05? PART II.  Using the “N6208 Final Project Data”, select two variables with nominal or ordinal level measurements, and perform the descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage).  [Please select only dichotomous variables from the following list: worknow, poverty, smoker, PoorHealth]. Then perform the bi-variate descriptive statistics using crosstabulation. Hand calculate the ARs, ARR, RR, and OR. Perform a chi-square analysis. Write a report with the following sections: Introduction: Including the variables, measurement levels, one bivariate research question, and one hypothesis. Method: Include sample description (sample size, eligibility criteria) and statistical methods used for data analysis. (The sample information can be found in “Polit Dataset Description” in SPSS Data Sets folder).   Results: Include frequencies and percentages for the two variables, crosstabulation results, risk indexes (ARs, ARR, RR, and OR), and chi-square test results. Include a narrative summary of the results and summary table(s) for the results (Attach SPSS outputs). Discussion: Write a report including summary and interpretation of the findings reported in the previous sections relative to the research questions you posed. Part III.  Run a one-way ANOVA using the dataset “N6208 Final Project Data”. The Dataset contains 1000 cases from the original PolitDatasetA. Two variables will be used for this analysis: Satisfaction and  Houseproblem. The variable Houseproblem is created using the variable housprob, a summary index of eight variables about current housing problems for the women in this sample—for example, whether or not they had their utilities cut off, had vermin in the household, had unreliable hear, and so forth.  The variable housprob is a count of the total number of times the women said “yes” to these eight questions.  The variable housprob is recoded into Houseproblem based on number of housing problems. The coding for Houseproblem is: 1=no housing problems, 2=one housing problem, and 3= two or more housing problems. Satisfaction measures the overall satisfaction with material sell-being. This variable is a summated rating scale variable for women’s responses to their degree of satisfaction with four aspects of their material sell-being—their housing, food, furniture, and clothing for themselves and their children. Each item was coded from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 4 (very satisfied), so the overall score for the four items could range from a low of 4 (4 X 1) to 16 (4 X 4). Higher score indicates greater satisfaction. This scale has an internal consistency Cronbach’s alpha of 0.90. The content validity and construct validity have been established in previous research. For this analysis, use the variable Houseproblem as the independent (group) variable and variable Satisfaction as the outcome variable. To run the one-way ANOVA, click Analyze → Compare Means → Oneway.  In the opening dialogue box, move Satisfaction into the Dependent List and Houseproblem into the slot for Factor. Click the Options pushbutton, and click Descriptives and Homogeneity of Variance, then continue. Next, click the Post Hoc pushbutton and select LSD.  Click continue, then OK, and answer these questions: 1.    What are the mean levels of satisfaction in the three groups? Report the mean, SD, median, minimum, maximum and sample size in a table. 2.    Write a research question. 3.    Write the research hypothesis and the null hypothesis. 4.    What was the value of the F statistic? 5.    What were the degrees of freedom? 6.    What was the probability level for the F statistic? Can the null hypothesis be rejected? 7.    According to the LSD test, were any group means significantly different from any others? If yes, which ones? 8.    Write a paragraph summarizing the results. 9.    Attach the relevant SPSS printouts.   EVALUATIVE CRITERIA FINAL PROJECT Criteria    5    4    3    2    1 Clarity of research questions and variables (1-4 pts)                     Accurate description of methods (1-4 pts)                     Thoroughness and accuracy of results (1-4 pts)                     Accuracy of interpretations (1-5 pts)                     Overall quality: logic, grammar, APA format. (1-4 pts)                     Total Score- max score 21 points                     Legend: 1=inaccurate, all information is wrong or did not provide an answer to the question 2=some information is wrong 3=most information is accurate 4/5=all information is accurate with high quality on all aspects. For a custom paper on the above or a related topic, place your order now! 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Write a research and null hypotheses regarding the relationship between exercise and depression

Write a research and null hypotheses regarding the relationship between exercise and depression

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## Clinical trials have shown that patient receiving artificial blood

Clinical trials have shown that patient receiving artificial blood. Clinical trials have shown that patient receiving artificial blood. Clinical trials have shown that patient recieving artificial blood have a significant higher risk of heart attack than those receiving donated blood.in a brief report analyse the social or economic impact of this new medical device .

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Clinical trials have shown that patient receiving artificial blood

Clinical trials have shown that patient receiving artificial blood

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## Biochem 523 Protein dynamics

Biochem 523 Protein dynamics. Biochem 523 Protein dynamics. Theoretical and experimental measurements show that in many cases, the contributions of ionic and hydrogen-bonding interactions to ΔH for protein folding are close to zero. Provide an explanation for this result. (Hint: Consider the environment in which protein folding occurs.)

The formation of favorable ______ ionic or ________ interactions in a _________ protein replace interactions between solvent (water) and the ionic species (or _________donors and acceptors) in the_________ state. The favorable ΔH obtained by formation of ____________ bonds in the___________ protein is offset by the energy required to ___________ many interactions, with solvent going from the ________ to the ________ state.

Fill in the blanks above using the words listed below.

H-bonding

H-bond

intermolecular

restore

unfolded

folded

C-bond

break

intramolecular

C-bonding

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Biochem 523 Protein dynamics

Biochem 523 Protein dynamics

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## different in each codon

different in each codon. different in each codon.

# Question: A) There are three different in each codon, and ea…

a) There are three different in each codon, and each of these nucleotides can have one of four different bases. How many possible unique codons are there?

b) If DNA had only two types of bases instead of four, how long would codons need to be to specify all 20 amino acids?

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different in each codon

different in each codon

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## function of DNA in producing the characteristicsv

function of DNA in producing the characteristicsv. function of DNA in producing the characteristicsv.

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Our understanding of genetic inheritance and the function of DNA in producing the characteristics of the individual have been developing for more than 150 years. Consider our current state of knowledge. Link genetic characteristics to DNA structure. Explain how DNA through the process of protein synthesis is responsible for the ultimate expression of the characteristics in the organism. Describe how interference in protein synthesis can result in disruption of cellular and bodily processes? How does the significance of one class of proteins, the enzymes, relate to the importance of proper nutrition throughout life?

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function of DNA in producing the characteristicsv

function of DNA in producing the characteristicsv

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## Investigate various techniques of plant propagation

Investigate various techniques of plant propagation. Investigate various techniques of plant propagation. Investigate various techniques of plant propagation e.g.leaf cutting,stem cutting,root cutting,seed germination and compare these with traditional aboriginal practices.create a table comparing one of traditional aboriginal practices with the techniques commonly used today

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Investigate various techniques of plant propagation

Investigate various techniques of plant propagation

### What We Offer:

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## function of DNA in producing the characteristics

function of DNA in producing the characteristics. function of DNA in producing the characteristics.

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## Among other benefits, we guarantee:

• #### Plagiarism free work

Our understanding of genetic inheritance and the function of DNA in producing the characteristics of the individual have been developing for more than 150 years. Consider our current state of knowledge. Link genetic characteristics to DNA structure. Explain how DNA through the process of protein synthesis is responsible for the ultimate expression of the characteristics in the organism. Describe how interference in protein synthesis can result in disruption of cellular and bodily processes? How does the significance of one class of proteins, the enzymes, relate to the importance of proper nutrition throughout life?

function of DNA in producing the characteristics

function of DNA in producing the characteristics

### What We Offer:

• Affordable Rates – (15 – 30% Discount on all orders above \$50)
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## Investigate various techniques of plant propagat

Investigate various techniques of plant propagat. Investigate various techniques of plant propagat. Investigate various techniques of plant propagation e.g.leaf cutting,stem cutting,root cutting,seed germination and compare these with traditional aboriginal practices.create a table comparing one of traditional aboriginal practices with the techniques commonly used today

# ORDER NOW

## Among other benefits, we guarantee:

• #### Plagiarism free work

Investigate various techniques of plant propagat

Investigate various techniques of plant propagat

### What We Offer:

• Affordable Rates – (15 – 30% Discount on all orders above \$50)
• 100% Free from Plagiarism
• Masters & Ph.D. Level Writers
• Money Back Guarantee
• 100% Privacy and Confidentiality
• Unlimited Revisions at no Extra Charges
• Guaranteed High-Quality Content