Newton's Law of Cooling. Newton's Law of Cooling. Newton’s Law of Cooling can be used to determine a crime victim’s time of death.
This Law describes the cooling of a warm object in a cooler environment that has a constant
The time can be calculated using:
T – the temperature of the person at the time of discovery in o F
C – the constant temperature of the environment in o F
F – the initial temperature of the person in o F (usually 98.6oF)
A detective is called to the scene of a crime where a dead body has just been found.
The detective arrives on the scene at 10:23 pm and begins an investigation.
Immediately, the temperature of the body is taken and is found to be 80o F.
The detective checks the programmable thermostat and finds that the room has been kept at a constant 68o F for the past 3 days.
The next day the detective is asked by another investigator, “What time did our victim die?
1) What is the value of T:
2) What is the value of C:
3) What is the value of F:
These would be used to calculate how long ago the victim died (in hours)
Suppose the detective calculated that the crime took place 12 hours previously
4) At what time did the crime take place?
Boiling Point of Water vs Altitude
Altitude (ft) Boiling Point (F) Altitude (ft) Boiling Point (F)
-1000 213.9 17,000 180.9
0 212.0 18,000 179.2
1000 210.1 19,000 177.6
2000 208.1 20,000 175.9
3000 206.2 21,000 174.2
4000 204.3 22,000 172.6
5000 202.4 23,000 171.0
6000 200.6 24,000 169.4
7000 198.7 25,000 167.8
8000 196.9 26,000 166.2
9000 195.0 27,000 164.6
10,000 193.2 28,000 163.1
11,000 191.4 29,000 161.5
12,000 189.7 30,000 160.0
13,000 187.9 35,000 140.9
14,000 186.1 40,000 129.0
15,000 184.4 50,000 103.2
16,000 182.7 100,000 -88.5
5) What is the approximate boiling point of water in °F on the top of Mt. Everest (elev 29,021 ft)
The Wilderness Medical Society says water temperatures above 160°F will kill all pathogens within 30 minutes
6) Will boiling water on the top of Mt. Everest kill germs?
Bernoulli’s Principle – How Does an Airplane Fly?
7) What does Bernoulli’s Principle predict will happen to the air pressure on top of the wing vs across the bottom?
8) What will happen as a result?
We call this effect “lift”.
9) What is the force working in the opposite direction of lift?
Other forces affect how a plane flies.
While the engine is moving the plane forward, another force is pulling it backwards called “drag”.
10) What is causing drag?
Airplane wings have hinged surfaces on the trailing edge
that can be levered downward.
11) What effect will this have on lift?
On the wings of the plane, these are called “ailerons”.
On the tail, they are called “elevators”.
12) What would happen if the ailerons were tilted upward rather than downward?
When planes land, they do this, and also use flaps on the
leading edge of the wing called “spoilers”.
13) How would spoilers help the plane land?
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Newton's Law of Cooling
Newton's Law of Cooling