Lab Work

Lab Work. Lab Work. Complete answers to all parts of the lab. Mostly accurate calculations. Evidence that you read each question carefully and reflected on and learned the concepts rather than just rushing through to complete the tasks as quickly as possible.

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Lab Work

Lab Work

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Moon Phase Observing

Moon Phase Observing. Moon Phase Observing. Moon Phase Observing
Purpose
To observe the changing appearance of the Moon over the course of several weeks.

Time Estimate
You should spend approximately 15 minutes to complete each observation and 15 minutes to submit each observation image and log entry.

Objectives
This activity helps you achieve the following module objectives:

To observe each of the lunar phases.
To become familiar the the time that different moon phases appear in the observer’s sky.
To analyze and understand the relative positions of the Sun, Moon and Earth for each phase.
Instructions
Four Observations
1. Observe the phase and location of the Moon within the following restrictions:

You must make at least 2 separate observations of the Moon. At least 3 days should pass between successive observations (e.g., if you observe Monday of Week 2, the next earliest observation date permissible would be Thursday of Week 2).
At least one observation (in which you can see the Moon) must be made while the sun is visible. It is a common misconception that the Moon is only visible at night. In fact, most phases are visible during the daylight hours.
You must be able to see the Moon, so new Moon or cloudy days do not count.
The Moon does not rise at the same time every day/night. You can obtain the time of moonrise/moonset on a particular day from the U.S. Naval Observatory’s Astronomical Applications site.
2. Submit a record of each Moon observation you make:

There is an observation assignment for each of the four observations. Do not submit multiple observations to one assignment.
Upload an original digital image of the Moon as observed by you. Note you can upload only one image per observation entry and that uploaded images have a maximum size of 1 MB. Image files should be in .jpg or .png format.
In the "Submission comments" field, enter the following observation log information:
Date and time of each phase observation. The observations do not have to be, and will probably not be in calendar order. Weather conditions may delay observations of the particular phases.
Complete phase name (e.g. Waxing Crescent).
Compass direction (SE, SW, etc.) and height of the Moon (e.g., high in the sky, low in the sky, on the horizon) in the sky. This need only be approximated.
Using the chart below, identify the Moon’s approximate position (by position #) in its orbit around the Earth, relative to the Sun.
Moon phases

Evaluation
Each of the four observations is graded out of 10 points. After the conclusion of this activity, you can expect your instructor to provide your grade and any relevant feedback to you via the Grades area. The Moon Lab accounts for up to 40 points of extra credit.

A Moon Observation Example Submission is available for review.

Rubric:
Moon Observation Image (digital image)

5/5 – Image clearly shows the Moon in the observed phase
3/5 – Moon phase is unclear from the image
1/5 – Image uploaded, but it is unclear which object is the Moon
0/5 – No image (Note: if there is no log information, the image will also receive 0 points)
Observation Log Information

5/5 – All required log information on the observation is given
3/5 – 1-2 required log items are missing or incorrect
1/5 – 3 or more required log items are missing or incorrect
0/5 – No log entry (Note: if there is no image, the log will also receive 0 points)
Most students who lose points do so for the following reasons:

Images are plagiarized – You must take your own image. Pulling images from the internet and submitting them as your own is plagiarism.
Phase is incorrectly identified. The phase in the image does not match the phase reported, or the phase in the image is not identifiable – Be sure your image clearly shows the phase of the moon and that you are reporting the phase correctly.
The moon was not visible at time reported because it was up at a different time.
You cannot observe a New Moon – Be sure that you plan your observations for nights other than the New Moon.
It was cloudy. You cannot submit a "this is what the Moon would have looked like" image. If it’s cloudy when you try to observe, try again a different day. Corollary: Don’t wait too long to get started.
Incomplete log information – Each submission must contain the following information: Date, Moon Phase, Phase Diagram Position #, Moon location, & Image of the Moon. See the Moon Observation Example Submission if you are unsure.

In a word, you need to take 2 moon photos and 2 Observation Log Information.Moon Phase Observing
Purpose
To observe the changing appearance of the Moon over the course of several weeks.

Time Estimate
You should spend approximately 15 minutes to complete each observation and 15 minutes to submit each observation image and log entry.

Objectives
This activity helps you achieve the following module objectives:

To observe each of the lunar phases.
To become familiar the the time that different moon phases appear in the observer’s sky.
To analyze and understand the relative positions of the Sun, Moon and Earth for each phase.
Instructions
Four Observations
1. Observe the phase and location of the Moon within the following restrictions:

You must make at least 2 separate observations of the Moon. At least 3 days should pass between successive observations (e.g., if you observe Monday of Week 2, the next earliest observation date permissible would be Thursday of Week 2).
At least one observation (in which you can see the Moon) must be made while the sun is visible. It is a common misconception that the Moon is only visible at night. In fact, most phases are visible during the daylight hours.
You must be able to see the Moon, so new Moon or cloudy days do not count.
The Moon does not rise at the same time every day/night. You can obtain the time of moonrise/moonset on a particular day from the U.S. Naval Observatory’s Astronomical Applications site.
2. Submit a record of each Moon observation you make:

There is an observation assignment for each of the four observations. Do not submit multiple observations to one assignment.
Upload an original digital image of the Moon as observed by you. Note you can upload only one image per observation entry and that uploaded images have a maximum size of 1 MB. Image files should be in .jpg or .png format.
In the "Submission comments" field, enter the following observation log information:
Date and time of each phase observation. The observations do not have to be, and will probably not be in calendar order. Weather conditions may delay observations of the particular phases.
Complete phase name (e.g. Waxing Crescent).
Compass direction (SE, SW, etc.) and height of the Moon (e.g., high in the sky, low in the sky, on the horizon) in the sky. This need only be approximated.
Using the chart below, identify the Moon’s approximate position (by position #) in its orbit around the Earth, relative to the Sun.
Moon phases

Evaluation
Each of the four observations is graded out of 10 points. After the conclusion of this activity, you can expect your instructor to provide your grade and any relevant feedback to you via the Grades area. The Moon Lab accounts for up to 40 points of extra credit.

A Moon Observation Example Submission is available for review.

Rubric:
Moon Observation Image (digital image)

5/5 – Image clearly shows the Moon in the observed phase
3/5 – Moon phase is unclear from the image
1/5 – Image uploaded, but it is unclear which object is the Moon
0/5 – No image (Note: if there is no log information, the image will also receive 0 points)
Observation Log Information

5/5 – All required log information on the observation is given
3/5 – 1-2 required log items are missing or incorrect
1/5 – 3 or more required log items are missing or incorrect
0/5 – No log entry (Note: if there is no image, the log will also receive 0 points)
Most students who lose points do so for the following reasons:

Images are plagiarized – You must take your own image. Pulling images from the internet and submitting them as your own is plagiarism.
Phase is incorrectly identified. The phase in the image does not match the phase reported, or the phase in the image is not identifiable – Be sure your image clearly shows the phase of the moon and that you are reporting the phase correctly.
The moon was not visible at time reported because it was up at a different time.
You cannot observe a New Moon – Be sure that you plan your observations for nights other than the New Moon.
It was cloudy. You cannot submit a "this is what the Moon would have looked like" image. If it’s cloudy when you try to observe, try again a different day. Corollary: Don’t wait too long to get started.
Incomplete log information – Each submission must contain the following information: Date, Moon Phase, Phase Diagram Position #, Moon location, & Image of the Moon. See the Moon Observation Example Submission if you are unsure.

In a word, you need to take 2 moon photos and 2 Observation Log Information.

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Moon Phase Observing

Moon Phase Observing

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Astronomy and Architecture

Astronomy and Architecture. Astronomy and Architecture. Find at least 1 book and 1 magazine article, and no more than 2 websites, to use as sources and references for your paper; make sure you cite your references fully (including page numbers). Ask the librarians to assist you in finding relevant references, including from online resources.
please use 1.5-line spacing. The paper should contain the following sections: cover page, table of contents, introduction, main sections, summary and conclusions, references/bibliography.

Introduction on astronomy
Introduction on architecture
Talk about how it was discovered
Examples
Summary
Conclusion
Main section and what you’ll talk about

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Astronomy and Architecture

Astronomy and Architecture

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Project Understanding Solar vs. Clock time

Project Understanding Solar vs. Clock time. Project Understanding Solar vs. Clock time.

Make a sundial following the instructions on the Sky & Telescope website: http://
www.skyandtelescope.com/observing/make-your-own-sundial/ . Use your sundial to
determine the difference between local solar time and wall-clock time.
To receive credit for this project, you must:
1. Construct the sundial. Take a picture of your working model.
2. Carefully align the sundial according to the instructions, and take a measurement of
the local solar time, or local apparent time. Compare this to an accurate
measurement of Pacific Standard/Daylight time. Record your results
3. Repeat the procedure at least four times spread out over the semester or session. and
preferably at different locations.
4. Document your results.
• For each occurrence, describe your setup, the date , the sundial time and clock time.
Include your longitude.
• In summary describe and explain the differences between the time you record with
your sundial and the time your watch records. Describe the effect due to daylight
savings time and to time zones.
5. Write and submit a report as outlined in the general instruction

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Project Understanding Solar vs. Clock time

Project Understanding Solar vs. Clock time

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Project Star Wheel

Project Star Wheel. Project Star Wheel. Make a Star Wheel following the instructions on the Sky & Telescope website: http://
www.skyandtelescope.com/astronomy-resources/make-a-star-wheel/ . Use your star wheel to
identify three objects that you observe in the night sky.
To receive credit for this project, you must:
1. Construct the star wheel. Take a picture of your working model.
2. Pick a clear evening and a fairly dark location, where you can see several stars in the
night sky. Be careful to recognize which objects are planets! The star wheel will not
tell you where they are, but an astronomy app may. You can also check “This week’s
sky at a glance” also on the Sky & Tel site: http://www.skyandtelescope.com/
observing/sky-at-a-glance/
3. Use the star wheel to identify what you are looking at. Two of the objects should be
stars, the third can be a planet, if one is up and visible when you make your
observation
4. Document your results.
• Describe your approximate location and time of night.
• For each star, give the name or otherwise identify it, sketch or photograph it and its
location in the sky (i.e., “high in the sky to the west, low in the sky to the east”).
5. Write and submit a report as outlined in the general instructions.

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Project Star Wheel

Project Star Wheel

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Habitable Zones

Habitable Zones. Habitable Zones. What are some factors that affect the habitable zone and why is it important to life on Earth?

Give an example of an organism that has defied the odds of existence based on their habitat (i.e. an organism lives in a place we would not expect anything to live, do not use an organism listed in the module).

Where do you think we should be looking for ETs and what do you think they would most likely look like?

*Your answer should show that you understand what the habitable zone is, why liquid water is important, what types of organisms ‘defy the odds’ by living outside of this zone, and how the habitable zone may help us in locating ETs*

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Habitable Zones

Habitable Zones

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Analysis of the Impact of Unmanned Flight Systems on Airfield Operations

Analysis of the Impact of Unmanned Flight Systems on Airfield Operations. Analysis of the Impact of Unmanned Flight Systems on Airfield Operations. see attachments. Must be APA format. Proposal and project template is attached. Proposal is to be 15 pages long with a minimum of 10 references. Project is to be 40 pages long with 20-30 references. Proposal is needed by 1/18/15 and project is needed by 2/1/15.

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Analysis of the Impact of Unmanned Flight Systems on Airfield Operations

Analysis of the Impact of Unmanned Flight Systems on Airfield Operations

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Metrology

Metrology. Metrology. After reading the chapter, complete and submit the “Give It Some Thought” questions (not the problems) as file upload or use the text entry for the following chapters. Some of the Questions has two part A and B Chapter 1 I will Upload file for the Questions and the Book name of the book is ATMOSPHERE 12th EDITION

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Metrology

Metrology

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Newton's Law of Cooling

Newton's Law of Cooling. Newton's Law of Cooling. Newton’s Law of Cooling can be used to determine a crime victim’s time of death.

This Law describes the cooling of a warm object in a cooler environment that has a constant

temperature.

The time can be calculated using:

T – the temperature of the person at the time of discovery in o F

C – the constant temperature of the environment in o F

F – the initial temperature of the person in o F (usually 98.6oF)

A detective is called to the scene of a crime where a dead body has just been found.

The detective arrives on the scene at 10:23 pm and begins an investigation.

Immediately, the temperature of the body is taken and is found to be 80o F.

The detective checks the programmable thermostat and finds that the room has been kept at a constant 68o F for the past 3 days.

The next day the detective is asked by another investigator, “What time did our victim die?

1) What is the value of T:

2) What is the value of C:

3) What is the value of F:

These would be used to calculate how long ago the victim died (in hours)

Suppose the detective calculated that the crime took place 12 hours previously

4) At what time did the crime take place?

Boiling Point of Water vs Altitude

Altitude (ft) Boiling Point (F) Altitude (ft) Boiling Point (F)

-1000 213.9 17,000 180.9

0 212.0 18,000 179.2

1000 210.1 19,000 177.6

2000 208.1 20,000 175.9

3000 206.2 21,000 174.2

4000 204.3 22,000 172.6

5000 202.4 23,000 171.0

6000 200.6 24,000 169.4

7000 198.7 25,000 167.8

8000 196.9 26,000 166.2

9000 195.0 27,000 164.6

10,000 193.2 28,000 163.1

11,000 191.4 29,000 161.5

12,000 189.7 30,000 160.0

13,000 187.9 35,000 140.9

14,000 186.1 40,000 129.0

15,000 184.4 50,000 103.2

16,000 182.7 100,000 -88.5

5) What is the approximate boiling point of water in °F on the top of Mt. Everest (elev 29,021 ft)

The Wilderness Medical Society says water temperatures above 160°F will kill all pathogens within 30 minutes

6) Will boiling water on the top of Mt. Everest kill germs?

Bernoulli’s Principle – How Does an Airplane Fly?

7) What does Bernoulli’s Principle predict will happen to the air pressure on top of the wing vs across the bottom?

8) What will happen as a result?

We call this effect “lift”.

9) What is the force working in the opposite direction of lift?

Other forces affect how a plane flies.

While the engine is moving the plane forward, another force is pulling it backwards called “drag”.

10) What is causing drag?

Airplane wings have hinged surfaces on the trailing edge

that can be levered downward.

11) What effect will this have on lift?

On the wings of the plane, these are called “ailerons”.

On the tail, they are called “elevators”.

12) What would happen if the ailerons were tilted upward rather than downward?

When planes land, they do this, and also use flaps on the

leading edge of the wing called “spoilers”.

13) How would spoilers help the plane land?

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Newton's Law of Cooling

Newton's Law of Cooling

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The Expansion of The Universe_1

The Expansion of The Universe_1. The Expansion of The Universe_1. Please complete the PDF file title TheExpansionofTheUniverse_1.pdf
PLEASE CONTACT CUSTOMER IMMEDIATELY WITH ANY CONCERNS OR QUESTIONS.
Use only the resources that are provided to you.
Do NOT use outside sources.
ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS IN PDF file titled TheExpansionofTheUniverse_1.pdf

The following ALTERNATE DATA file “Expansion_Hubble Data PDF to answer questions.

Expansion Lab Question Hints PDF can be used to answer any questions.

The following resources are available if questions should arise.

YouTube: Live Lab Help Session Recording – Expansion Lab (Data Table & Hubble Plot)

YouTube: Live Lab Help Session Recording – Expansion Lab

Introduction
• Before Hubble, Vesto Slipher gathered observational evidence that except for the local group all galaxies have spectra with very large redshifts. This indicated that these objects moved away faster from us than anything else inside our Milky Way Galaxy. In 1929, Edwin Hubble independently determined the redshift and the distance of various galaxies. From the redshift he calculated the velocities with which the galaxies were moving away from us. He was the first to propose that these galaxies were each systems of hundreds of billions of stars and interstellar matter similar to the Milky Way Galaxy. Before Hubble, people believed that they were small nebulous objects which were part of the Milky Way Galaxy. Hubble plotted the recessional velocities versus the distances of the galaxies and fit a straight line to his data. The slope of this line is known ans the “Hubble Constant”.
◦ The Hubble Law: v = Hd, where v is the recessional velocity in units of km/s, H is the Hubble constant, and d is the distance in units of Mega parsecs or Mpc. This equation can be solved for the Hubble Constant by dividing both sides by the distance: H = v/d, its units will be km/s/Mpc.
• This lab will simulate observations of galactic spectra that you will analyze for the redshift of the H and K lines of calcium and for apparent magnitude. The redshift will yield the galaxy’s velocity and the apparent magnitude will allow you to calculate the distance. You will then plot your data and find the Hubble constant from the slope of your best fit line.
• Implications of the Hubble Law: All galaxies (except for members of the local group) are moving away from us. In fact, the greater the distance to a galaxy the faster it is moving away from us. This result implies that the universe is getting bigger! If we run the motion of galaxies in reverse (going back in time) we come to the conclusion that the universe had a beginning! We can estimate the age of the universe by taking the inverse of the Hubble constant. The units of the Hubble contant are in km/s/Mpc. You can convert the Mpc to km and then cancel out the km entirely. You are left with a number in units of 1/s. The inverse of this number is the age of the universe in seconds. This, in turn can be converted to billion years.

Procedures
• Start Up: Run the file “Clea_hub.exe”. The title page of the CLEA Hubble Redshift lab should come up. Click on “File”, then “Log in”. A window opens that prompts you for student names and a table number. It is enough to enter an arbitrary character in the field of the first student name and click ok. A window will ask you whether you are finished logging in, you can answer yes. Then you see the opening screen of the “Hubble Redshift Distance Relation” lab. Click on “File” and “Run”. The telescope control screen will open. Once you have control of the telescope, click “ok”, then click on “Dome”. The setting of the dome will change from closed to open. A field of stars and galaxies will come into view that slowly shifts due to the Earth’s rotation. Click on “Tracking”, so that the telescope will eliminate the effect of Earth’s rotation and track a point in the sky of your choosing.
• Maneuvering the Telescope: The thin red square in the field of view indicates the finder of the telescope. Use the direction buttons to move the telescope such that a galaxy is centered in the finder. The “Slew Rate” indicates how fast the telescope will move. By clicking on it repeatedly you can change the slew rate to faster or slower settings. Once you have a galaxy centered within the finder, click on “Change View”. This will switch the finder with the instrument, a spectroscope, that will take the spectrum. In the field of view the red square changes to two parallel red lines that symbolize the narrow slit of the spectroscope. You may have to readjust the telescope so that the slit is centered on the brightest portion of the galaxy.
• Taking Data: There are a total of six fields of galaxies one of each you need to measure. Once you have adjusted the slit of the spectroscope to the desired position, click “Take Reading”. The window that opens up shows a graph plotting intensity vs. wavelength. When you click on “Start/Resume Count”, the spectrometer will start receiving data points which are instantly plotted on the graph. Clicking on “Stop Count” will stop the data taking and a continuous curve will be plotted through the data points. If you still cannot discern the H and K absorption lines (they are dips in the overall intensity) you can click on “Start/Resume Count” to continue taking data. The further away the galaxy the more “noisy” the data will look like. The data points will be more scattered and the absorption lines harder to discern. Fewer photons are coming in so you’ll have to wait longer to reach a certain number of photons (collect at least 50,000). The further away, the more redshifted the lines are which means they will move to longer wavelengths. When you are sure you can see the lines clear enough click on the minimum of each line to see its wavelength and intensity. From the data below the graph, record the object, photon count, apparent magnitude, and the wavelengths for the H and K lines. The K-line will be the one at shorter wavelength, the H-line at longer wavelength just to the right of the K-line. For the nearby galaxies, you may see a third line at even longer wavelengths called the “G” band (it results from the molecule methane). If you like you can click on “Record Data” and enter, save, and or print your data. Once you’re done with processing the data, click “Return” and a window will pop up to remind you that you’ll lose your spectrum when you return. If you have recorded your data at least on paper you can click “Ok”. To get to the next galaxy field you need to click on “Change View” to change your telescope back to the finder. This releases the “Field” option at the top menu bar which you now select. The field you just studied is still highlighted. Click on another one, then “Ok” and the next field will be loaded. You need to gather spectra from one galaxy in each field to fill in the table.
• Analyzing Data: You can assume that all the galaxies you see would be about equally luminous if you saw them side by side. Their differences in brightness are due to their distance from Earth. Take their absolute magnitude (M) to be 22. You’ll also need the rest wavelengths of the H and K lines of Calcium: 8 K = 3933.7D and 8 H = 3968.5D .
◦ In column 4 of the data table you will calculate the distance of the galaxies. You can use: M = m + 5 – 5logD, where M and m are absolute and apparent magnitudes, respectively, and D is the distance of the galaxy. You can solve this equation for D by subtracting m + 5 from both sides, divide by -5 and then use both sides as the exponent to base 10. The last step will remove the log and D will be isolated: 10(m + 5 -M)/5 = D. This will give you the distance in parsecs, pc.
◦ Column 5 requires the distance in Mpc. Use this conversion factor: 1Mpc = 106pc.
◦ In column 8 and 9 you calculate the recessional velocity of the galaxy based on the redshift of the wavelengths you measured for the H and K lines of Calcium. You can calculate the redshift for each line using ) 8 = 8 measured – 8 rest, then plug that into the formula for the Doppler Shift, v/c = ) 8 /8 rest. This can be solved for the recessional velocity by multiplying both sides by c: v = c ) 8 /8 rest.
◦ Column 10 is the average of column 8 and 9: vaverage = (vH + vK)/2.
◦ Graphing your data: use the graph on page 235 (last page of manual) to plot you data. The average recessional velocity values from column 10 are the values for the vertical axis and the distance values from column 5 go on the horizontal axis. Use a ruler and draw a straight line through the origin and as close to the majority of the data points as you can. DO NOT connect the dots.
◦ You must submit the completed graph. There are three ways you can get a copy of the completed graph to me: 1) send it through regular mail: c./o. Ulrike Lahaise, 3251 Panthersville Road, Decatur, GA 30034. 2) fax it to me: (404)244-5937, 3) scan it in and send it as an attachment to a private mail message.
◦ Calculation Hints for Answering Questions:
▪ Q1: The average value of the Hubble constant is the slope of your graph. Pick one point on the line that is easy to read, for example, where the line intersects gridlines. The other point is the origin (0,0). That makes it easy to calculate the slope as H = velocity value/distance value.
▪ Q2: Use the Hubble law to calculate the recessional velocity of a galaxy that is 800Mpc away: v = your value from Q1 x 800Mpc.
▪ Q3: Conversion of 800Mpc to km. Use the following conversion factors: M stands for Mega = 106, 1pc = 3.26ly, 1ly = 300,000km, 1 year = 3.15 x 107s.
▪ Q4: Knowing the distance and recessional velocity of the galaxy you can calculate how much time it needed to get to its current position. This is the time the universe has been in existence. You can use the simple relationship that distance = velocity x time or d = vt. Solving this for t by dividing both sides by v yields: t = d/v. Plug in your value from Q1 for v, your value from Q3 for d, and you get the age of the universe in seconds.
▪ Q5: Convert the age of the universe to years by using the conversion factor 1 year = 3.15 x 107s.
▪ Q6: Recalculate the age of the universe for galactic distances that are smaller by a factor of 10 with the same velocities. Think about it. All quantities you’ve calculated have been products or quotients. Changing one number by a factor of 10 will also change the others to either ten times smaller or larger. If your numbers are in scientific notation you can do that by changing the power of ten to one more or one less. You just need to figure out which way.
▪ The Hubble constant was calculated as the quotient of velocity in the numerator and distance in the denominator. The distance is going to be ten times smaller in the denominator.
▪ The age of the universe in seconds was calculated by dividing distance by velocity. This time the ten times smaller distance is in the numerator.

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▪ To convert into the age of the universe into years you just multiplied the age of the universe in seconds by a number. So, whatever change you made for the age of the universe in seconds will be the same for the age of the universe in years.

The Expansion of The Universe_1

The Expansion of The Universe_1

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