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I don’t know how to handle this History question and need guidance.

Answer the 3 question below and reply to each student.

Student Reply must be over 200 words.

Make sure all student replies you start it with Hello (Student Name),

Attached Grading Rubric for question 3:

Question 1:

Discuss all of the following questions using several different examples from the text, or video, and original analysis of your own.

  • In what ways was Europe united in the last decade of the 20th century?
    • What were the political implications of European unity?
    • What were the social implications of European unity?
    • What were the economic implications of European unity?
  • In what ways was Europe divided in the last decade of the 20th century?
    • How did the Cold War contribute to these divisions?
  • What role did nationalism and genocide play in Europe during the last decade of the 20th century?
  • Did the collapse of communism have a positive or negative impact on Europe in the last decade of the 2oth century? Why?

Student Reply 1: Leandro

Political implications for membership in the European union required democracy and market economies thus providing motivation for states previously ruled under Communism to transition into these requirements. Economic implications of globalization meant to increase in share and wealth of the consumer market and opened up a vast diversity of international trade with the free movement of goods, labor, and money. With such economic progress of international investment by European banks, Europe actually surpassed the U.S. in this area with much success. Entry into the European Union was filtered through a 97,000-page document filled with expectations and criteria for a political and economic agenda (Shubert & Goldstein, 2012). Some of these requirements even set out to create a standard for social expectations as well.

Tax laws and trade agreements promised to level the common policies of economics across local markets in the EU providing for a standardization of EU products and policies. Socially speaking, globalization was perceived to be directed by the bureaucrats and as details of constitution governances for the EU came together, the public failed to see how these decisions represented the citizens (Shubert & Goldstein, 2012. However, this early period of globalization ultimately reflects much improved welfare systems and higher earnings. The socioeconomic influences of globalization resulted in growth of job availability, growing incomes, and movements toward gender equality all leading to less poverty.

Division of Europe began initially in economic markets. As former Communist countries faced the realization their own economic markets were behind the rest of Europe, the inequality between these former communist countries and the rest of Europe grew wider. Western Germany and Eastern Germany also suffered in their division as well as reunification process. With Western Germany thriving in capitalism, Eastern Germany struggled to give their pre-war socialist structure as Communism drew back causing east and west to struggle in unification. Divisions in Europe also can be seen in the divide between the European youth culture and older European demographics as the youth culture rapidly adopted popular western values and abandoned traditional values embraced by these older generations. Cold War tensions proved to be a strain on economies and produced the spread of distrust throughout Europe (Shubert & Goldstein, 2012). However, the end of the Cold War created a European environment where boundaries and limitations were lifted, particularly for immigration.

There were also ethnic and religious divides in many countries as well. As immigration increased dramatically in the 1990s, people from poor, turmoil-stricken countries sought asylum in Europe. Immigration emphasized religious and ethnic divides, with Muslim immigrants being a particularly large group into Europe with 29.6 million in 1990 increasing to 44.1 million by 2010. In some countries, for example the Netherlands, little attempt was been made to integrate immigrants in a nation’s societal fold leaving immigrants to feel a sense of estrangement in these countries (Shubert & Goldstein, 2012).

Nationalism was of big debate in Europe in the last decade. With the European Union being the preferred unification, questions of identity focused on whether to place importance on being a member of the European community versus identifying with the alignments and nationalism of the restored individual state (Shubert & Goldstein, 2012). The call for individualized nationalism produced a spawning of political parties that targeted preservation of a “national identity” and excluded immigrants from outside countries (Shubert & Goldstein, 2012, Ch 7.4 Society and Culture, para. 15). Genocide of the Holocaust was all but denied post-war will many Europeans refusing to speak of it and other refusing to confirm the existence of these atrocities in their European history. Many nations devised their own versions of the Holocaust that centered on the nationalism they chose to portray. This left a widening ethnic divide within these nations and an growing divide between the recognized common nationalism of the European Union (Shubert & Goldstein, 2012).

The collapse of communism had a both a positive and negative impact on Europe. On one side, the ousting of Communist factions by Eastern European satellite countries allowed for the unification of Europe without the barriers of Communist opposition. It also facilitated in globalization, the sharing of economic markets globally. Globalization coupled with the collaboration of the European Union resulted in an increase in per capita income as well as social and structural well-being. However, with the immediate collapse of the Communist stronghold of Eastern Europe there was a vast and devastating impact on the former Soviet Union’s economy with net income dropping 17%. The collapse of Communism left many citizens of countries feeling the disillusionment of a strong political hold and failed to create their own political and economic plan with civil divisions of ideology being the common factor for these newly released nations. And while Communism fell as the Berlin Wall did, ideological divides still remained between a desire for socialist controls and capitalist markets and Western expectations for free trade and democracy as well as against remaining Communist supporters (Shubert & Goldstein, 2012).


Shubert, A. & Goldstein, R.J. (2012). Twentieth-century Europe [Electronic version]. Retrieved from

Student Reply 2: Delilah

The downfall of communism led to the explosion of political parties and other signs of a rapidly emerging civil society.With 51 political parties registered by January 1990 In Czechoslovakia, and in Hungary the number of private book publishers quickly increased from two or three underground organizations in 1988 to 300 open publishers by mid-1990. In Poland an estimated 600 new publications emerged within five months, and even Romania the number of periodicals quadrupled within a year. Sixty-seven parties contested the 1991 Polish elections, while 74 competed in the Romanian elections of 1992 (Goldstein, 2007; Paxton, 2005).

Communist parties usually changed their name and adopted democratic platforms to try and stay in power and relevant,

After communism there was also a greater freedom of expression. Many magazines and newspapers went out of business. Instead of Russian the literature and music of choice was Western European and American which put many Russian writers and singers out of business.

Memory had also become an issue at the forefront of life again after 50 some years. Grassroots movements brought the issue to public attention again. It was a common issue for both Western and Eastern Europe to deal with the memories, but it gave way to conflict and disagreement.I Seems the West had done a better job of dealing with the war and the Holocaust, but it was the first country to have to deal with the new conflicts over memory (Shubert & Goldstein, 2012).

Question 2:

Discuss all of the following questions using several different examples from the text, or video, and original analysis of your own.

  • In what ways has the globalization of Europe affected the world economy—particularly the gap between rich and poor countries?
  • In what ways has the globalization of Europe affected the political aspirations of nations and nation-states?
  • What role does modern technology play in terrorism during the age of globalization?
  • What role does nationalism play in terrorism?
  • What causes an individual to become a terrorist?
  • How is the average European affected by terrorism in the age of globalization?

Student Reply 3: Olanda

Globalization is the increasing integration of the global economy, as measured by international trade, investment, and manufacturing, made possible by the political predominance of policies favorable to market forces’ free operation. The rich are the ones that will take advantage of globalization compare to the developing countries. “At the same time as most Eastern Europeans suffered a severe decline in living standards, in most countries, a few entrepreneurs made large amounts of money. The event created a gap between the top and bottom that was previously unknown in that region, though it was fairly comparable to Western Europe and only half of the gap in the United States” (Shubert, Goldstein, 2012). Many countries wanted to be part of the European Union. Entry into the European Union required commitment to political democracy and a market economy. ” The prospect of joining provided great incentives for reform in the former communist states, and an entry placed a stamp of legitimacy on their regimes. Aspiring new members were presented with 97,000 pages of requirements, known as the acquis communitaire, with which they had to comply. The requirements covered a wide range of issues, including the movement of goods and people, fisheries, and policies regarding culture. Also, occupants gained admission after long delays and negotiations that reflected considerable reluctance by some existing members” (Shubert, Goldstein, 2012). The use of new technology plays a significant part when it comes to globalization. It advances with technology like computers and cellphones lead terrorist groups to be able to use these creations to terrorize by hacking into secure systems. Terrorism comes from a group of extremist that are not acting on behalf of their government. Many terrorist groups target nations like the United States, and nationalism plays a significant role in this because they want to prove that their country and society is better. Terrorism has caused places like Europe and the United States to close their borders because they think all groups like Muslims mean ill will, even though everyone may not share the same extreme ideas. Terrorism affects Europen in ways of placing fear over them that they can be a part of a terrorist attack. Unfortunately, Many civilians find themselves caught in the crosshairs of an attack.


Shubert, A. & Goldstein, R.J. (2012). Twentieth-century Europe [Electronic version]. Retrieved from

Student Reply 4: Heather

Globalization of Europe allowed the welfare states to disappear, money to be distributed differently and both states and people began to have trouble surviving. Many people began to suffer from welfare programs to help them in place. They suffered from higher unemployment rates, life expectancy dropped, birth rates declined, and mortality rates began to increase (Shubert and Goldstein 2012). Things continued to decline in the economical and political venues across Europe as well. Inflation was occurring, there was price gouging where there once had been stable prices, and wages for the individual dropped (Shubert and Goldstein 2012). Communist Parties began to form again in Poland and Lithuania states because economies had gotten so bad for them, they need to find a way to stabilize themselves. The only way the states could do this was with the old way of communism because the E.U. and West Europe refused to aid them in recovery (Shubert and Goldstein 2012).

Technology had advanced greatly since the first world war, giving us cell phones, laptops, highspeed internet, phone lines around the world, the more modern the technology the easier it has become to attack one enemy’s from afar. During the globalization of Europe, bombs were used that did not require anyone to stand near them to detonate, they were set up and the person left, keeping them safe and killing or injuring hundreds. This happened several times in Europe with the terrorist attacks.

In the 2000s the average European became highly aware and frightened of terrorist attacks because they witnessed the attacks on the United States. From witnessing the United States’ distress they then suffered many attacks themselves from the same group of people causing more fear and more reason to distrust those who were Muslim. Once this happened they began to outcast all Muslims, finding ways to ban them from areas, ban their headdress, burn their books, and over ostracize them (Shubert and Goldstein 2012). Those who had fled their countries had hoped to find a new home where fear was no longer present and they could start over fresh instead they met resistance.

I do not know what causes an individual to become a terrorist. I imagine it is that they love their country as we do ours. For what we see as terrorism they see as freedom fighting, fighting for a cause, standing up for what they believe is right and fair in the world. I believe that is what role nationalism plays in this. All of the Muslims who left their homes and received unjust treatment, where fighting back. They had targets backs and as the saying goes, “if you’re being accused of something you may as well.” Perhaps that too is how they felt. They took a stand and fought for their beliefs, that they brought with them from their homes.


Shubert, A. & Goldstein, R.J. (2012). Twentieth-century Europe [Electronic version]. Retrieved from

Question 3:

Select one of the following topics to formulate a research paper:

  • Nationalism – Discuss the role of nationalism in 20th century Europe.
  • Race & Ethnicity – Discuss the role of race and ethnicity in 20th century Europe.
  • Genocide – Discuss the emergence and frequency of genocide in Europe during the 20th century.
  • Terrorism – Discuss the utilization of terrorism in 20th century Europe.
  • Role of Women – Discuss the role of women in 20th century Europe.

For this paper, you need to conduct research in peer-reviewed journals or other sources that are considered to have reliable information. In addition to your required course text, you will need at least six professional scholarly sources, three of which must be peer-reviewed journal articles. Please visit the Academic Research section on your course homepage (accessible through the Student Responsibilities and Policies tab on the left navigation toolbar) to review what types of materials are, and are not, acceptable for academic, university level research.

The paper must be eight to ten pages in length (excluding the title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.). You must use at least six scholarly sources, at least three of which can be found in the Ashford University Library, to support your claims and subclaims. To further help you in your research for this assignment and for the Final Paper, it is recommended that you view the Resources for Potential Research. Cite your sources in text and on the reference page. For information regarding APA samples and tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center within the Learning Resources tab on the left navigation toolbar.

Writing the Final Paper
The Final Paper:

  • Must be eight to ten double-spaced pages in length, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must include a title page with the following:
    • Title of paper
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  • Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
  • Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
  • Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
  • Must use at least six scholarly resources, including a minimum of three from the Ashford University Library.
  • Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Cente

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